Tuesday, September 11, 2007

General Education Component


FOCI: Biology and Genetics



· is a way of looking at the world around us
· is a way of trying to explain how the worlds operates
· careful observation of nature is one important aspect of science
· observation are made and then information is gathered and examined when research is carried out
· Experiment is an observation of some natural phenomenon that is carried out under controlled conditions so that it is possible to duplicate the results of the experiment and draw rational conclusion
· Science uses scientific method to grow. The phases of the scientific method are:
observation and description
searching for patterns and regularities
making generalizations and framing scientific laws
formulating hypothesis and theories
making predictions based on theories
testing predictions by experimentation

· scientists deal with variables – independent (factors in the experiment that can be changed), dependent(result or outcome), constant (not changed)
· science is either basic (seeks to find knowledge for the sake of knowing more about a particular type of matter) or applied (seek to find new knowledge for the purpose of solving a particular problem).
· Natural Sciences include physics, astronomy, geology, chemistry, biological sciences
· Technology puts both basic and applied sciences to work by producing material objects for use by people. Science is knowledge and technology is application of science in production of material objects
· the concern of science is the natural world, the natural phenomena that take place in planet earth
· planet earth is our home and its natural resources are finite
· All planets get energy from the sun. The earth is the only planet with living things, which inhabit water, land and air. Three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water. The rest is the continent, which used to be one called pangea. Pangea was divided into plates. The plates moved gradually through several processes like continental drift, sea floor spreading, plate tectonics, etc. The plates float on the mantle. The mantle is a layer of hot, plastic-like rocks moving underneath the crust. There are mountains formed by pushing or faulting. Underneath the surface of the earth are subsurface activities like earthquake and volcanic activities. On the surface are external forces, which can topple lofty mountains.

· Each provides us with air to breathe, food to eat and water to drink. It gives us materials to build home and shelter, for clothes, and it provides us with many things that we need to enjoy. Every single one of us depends on the earth for life. We need space for home, to move around, to work, to farm, to establish factories, build road and for parks. Thus we, use lands, grow plants and herds of animals, cut down trees and other plants, dig coal, drill oils and mine rocks. All of these we get from Earth are called natural resources.

Ø The world’s population is expanding. By 2050, the population of the year 2000 will be doubled. Will there still food for everyone? Will the earth be still healthy and pleasant to live/Will there be clean water? Will there be enough fresh air?
Ø Life on earth is so complex. Man has tried to conquer the range of phenomena and explained the natural world. The tremendous development in science today is the sign of man’s attempt to conquer nature.

· Through its concerns, science has developed and progressed tremendously bringing forth the age of computers, which give us electronic cash registers, and array of video games. Government agencies and companies train commercial and military pilots on flight simulators, which create varying, weather conditions., flight tactics and detailed maps of airfield. Machine designers are computer graphics for drafting needs, and business makes financial prediction on the spot. Artist used computer and monitor instead of paintbrush and canvas.
· Medical diagnosis has advanced due to computer and technologies like MRI and CT scan to examine tumor, locate tumors, and take a look at blocked arteries with accuracy.
· Recombinant DNA or plasmid for biosynthesis of human insulin, vaccines, enzymes, etc.
· due to advances in recombinant DNA, plymerace chain reaction technique evolved to diagnose diseases more rapidly and accurately.
· Technologies which can be used to solve problems like murder, rape, paternity cases
· Early diagnosis of diseases phenylketunuria, Down’s syndrome, cancer
· Gene therapy gene-related diseases
· Agricultural biotechnology – vaccines, treatment of diseases, plants with built-in resistance to pesticides, drought, and salt, plants which produce their pesticides, plants which produce seeds and fruits with better nutritional properties
· Bioprocessing that bring plants engineered to produce products like human pharmaceuticals.
· Material science: liquid crystals, superconductors, ceramics, optic fibers, thin films, etc.

Ø Some technological ideas are outgrowth of scientific breakthroughs and some technology has developed independent of scientific knowledge by trail and error. Technology builds upon two existing-technology and science.
Ø What are some of the applications of Science today? You might have heard or artificial blood, bioremediation of wastes, materials science, etc. However, science brought forth bad effects. The first publicized incident due to carelessness or lack of knowledge is the famous Love Canal in Niagara Falls. Another one is the discovery of extremely high levels of dioxin in the solid of Times Beach, Missouri. This led to the relocation of 2000 people and purchase of the entire town of Times Beach by EPA. In December 1984, a liquid chemical called methyl isocyanate overheated in a storage tank at Union Carbibe Co. chemical plant in Bhopal, India. A poisonous gas entered the atmosphere and caused death of thousands Indian people who lived in the vicinity of the plant.
Ø The explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union left a deadlt legacy. The accident was due to the cooling water that kept the uranium-containing fuel rods at a safe temperature in the fission reactor was accidentally cut-off. The fuel rod became very hot and water turned to steam and the chemical reaction occurred between the materials in the fuel rods and the graphite containing bricks that surrounded them. A mixture of explosive gases ignited, blowing off the building and igniting the graphite.

Ø The burning of oil wells and oil spills into the sea in the middle east during the Persian Gulf War brought havoc in the environment.
Ø In the Philippines, we are worried of Smokey mountains, the obnoxious atmosphere in Metropolis, the polluted bodies of water, open landfills, garbage in the metropolis, Ormoc City tragedy, 70% of Caraga region in February, 1999 was under water, Marcopper tragedy contaminant Boac river in Marinduque, cyanide fishing, Manila air is one of the world’s dirtiest air, landslide due to mining.

· Is there hope for these bad effects of technology. Of course!
· In 1971, some people started talking about sustainable development. One strategy is environmental education. Others are price tag of our natural resources, proper zoning, community participation, national park and other protected areas, proper harvest time of biodiversities, reforestation.
· In 1988, we signed with other countries the Montreal protocol
· In 1992 – the earth summit

I. Structural Levels of Organization
* Atom
* Element
* Simple molecules (H2O, CO2, O2, simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids,
* Organelle
* Cell
* Tissue
* Organ
* Organ System
* Organism
* Population
* Community
* Biosphere

II. Chemistry of the Cell

A. Inorganic Compounds

1. Water – most abundant substance of the living cell
universal solvent due to its polarity; ionic compounds or
electrolytes dissociate in water
high specific heat due to H-bonding, refers to the high heat energy
required to raise the temperature of a substance by a specific
high latent heat of vaporization refers to high energy needed to
separate molecules from the liquid phase and move them into gas
cohesion refers to mutual attraction between molecules
adhesion refers to the attraction of water to solid phase
high surface tension is a condition that exists at the air-water
interface wherein strong hydrogen bonding among water
molecules occur thereby minimizing surface area
2. Carbon Dioxide – principal raw materials for photosynthesis
3. Oxygen – requirement for cellular respiration

B. Organic Molecules

1. Carbohydrates – a.) monosaccharides – e.g. glucose, fructose, galactosen building units of carbohydrates
b. disaccharides – combination of two monosaccharides e.g. maltose, lactose and sucrose
c. polysaccharides – combination of several monosaccharides
e.g. starch and cellulose in plants, glycogen in animals
2. Lipids – fats and their derivatives – a fat molecule consists of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol
3. Proteins – Polymers of different types of amino acids
4. Nucleic acids – a.) Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) – genetic materials replicating molecules b.) Ribose nucleic acid (RNA) – messenger RNA and ribosomal RNA

III. Cell Structure and Functions

1. Cell Wall – made up of cellulose indigestible; gives shape and support to the plant cells
2. Plasma membrane – continuous lipid bilayer intercalated with proteins, regulation of transport of substances in and out of the cell.
3. Cilia and flagella – locomotion and feeding
4. Ribosomes – protein synthesis
5. Endoplasmic reticulum – modification and transport of proteins and other secretory products
6. Mitochondria – cellular respiration
7. Golgi apparatus – secretion synthesis
8. Lysosomes – storage site of hydrolytic enzymes
9. Vacuoles – storage of water and food for excretion
10. Chloroplast – photosynthesis
11. Nuclear membrane – traffic control to and from cytoplasm
12. Nucleolus – production of ribosomes
13. Chromosomes – carrier of hereditary traits or genes

IV. Cell Physiology

1. Protein synthesis – a.) DNA replication – to form double –stranded chromosomes (i.e. two chromatids per chromosomes); b.) Transcription – genetic information in DNA becomes incorporated in the messenger RNA c.) Translation – the codon in the messenger RNA is used to determine the sequence of amino acids in protein
2. Photosynthesis – process in which light energy and chlorophyll are used to manufacture carbohydrates out of CO2 and water.. a.) Light Reaction – chlorophyll traps light energy; photolysis-splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms, b.) Dark reaction – CO2 fixation into carbohydrates
3. Cellular Respiration – oxidation of organic compounds with the release of chemical energy; anaerobic and aerobic respiration
4. Cell reproduction – a.) mitosis – somatic cell division maintains the same number and kind of chromosomes as in the parent cell, diploid number of chromosomes; b.) meiosis – reproductive cell division in matured egg and sperm cells; reproduction in the number of chromosomes in the parent cell (haploid number)

V. Plant Tissues and Organ System

1. Meristematic tissue – a.) apical meristems – for the increase in the length of the plant body at the tips of the roots and stems; b.) lateral meristems – for the increase in the girth of the plant body
2. Simple permanent tissues – a.) epidermis – principal surface tissue of young and herbaceous roots and stems and flowers, b.) parenchymathin primary wall with large vacuoles; c.) collenchyma – primary walls with large vacuoles ; c.) collenchyma – primary walls irregularly thickened at the corners where the cells meet; d.) sclerenchyma – thick secondary walls and dead at maturity
3. Complex permanent tissue – a.) periderm – consists of cork, cork cambium and phelloderm, replaces the epidermis in mature woody roots and stems; b.) vascular tissues – 1.) Phloem – consists of parenchyma, sclerenchyma, sieve and companion cells; 2.) xylem – consists of parenchyma, sclerenchyma, tracheids and vessel elements

a. Bark consists of periderm and secondary phloem.
b. Wood consists of secondary xylem with annual rings
c. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Double fertilization – union of sperm and egg to form a diploid zygote that gives rise to the embryo, and the union of another sperm and the 2 polar nuclei forms the triploid endosperm.
d. Seed consists of seed coat, cotyledon, endosperm and embryo. Embryo consists of the plumule, hypocotyls and radicle.

VI. Animal Tissues and Organ Systems

1. Integumentary system – a.) epidermis – simple and stratified epithelial tissues; b.) dermis – sweat glands, oil glands, nerve, blood vessels, hair folliclen c.) subcutaneous tissue – adipose / fatty issues
2. Skeletal system – consists of bones that are hard due to solid matrix, which contains inorganic compounds such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate
3. Muscular system – a.) skeletal muscles – attached to the bones; voluntary; voluntary movement ; b.) smooth/visceral muscles-blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, gastrointestinal tracy; involuntary movement of vital fluid; c.) cardiac muscles – walls of the heart; pumping action to the heart.
4. Digestive system – mechanical and chemical digestion of food

a. Oral cavity – incisors, canines, premolars and molars; salivary glands secrete saliva with salivary amylase or ptyalin that converts starch to maltose.
b. Esophagus – peristaltic movement to push the bolus down
c. Stomach – gastric glands secrete gastric juice that contains pepsin, which digest protein to peptones and proteoses
d. Small intestines – intestinal glands secrete intestinal juice that contains the following digestive enzymes a.) erepsin digests petides to amino acid ; b.) maltase digest maltose to glucose; c.) lactase digest lactose to glucose and galactose; d.) sucrase digest sucrose to glucose and fructose.
e. Seed consists of seed coat, cotyledon, endosperm and embryo. Embryo consists of the plumule, hypocotyls and radicle.

VII. Animal Tissues and Organ Systems

1. Integumentary System – a.) epidemis – simple and stratified epithelial tissues; b.) dermis – sweat glands, oil glands, nerve, blood vessels, hair folliclen
2. Skeletal system – consists of bones that are hard due to solid matrix, which contains inorganic compounds such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate
3. Muscular system – a.) skeletal muscles – attached to the bones; voluntary movement; b.) smooth/visceral muscles – blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, gastrointestinal tract; involuntary movement of vital fluid; c.) cardiac muscles – walls of the heart, pumping action of the heart.
4. Digestive system – mechanical and chemical digestion of food
a. Oral cavity – incisors, canines, premolars and molars, salivary glands secrete saliva with salivary amylase or ptyalin that converts starch to maltose.
b. Esophagus – peristaltic movement to push the bolus down
c. Stomach – gastric glands, secrete gastric juice that contains pepsin, which digest protein to peptones and proteoses
d. Small intestines – intestinal glands secrete intestinal juice that contains the following digestive enzymes: a.) erepsin digests peptides to amino acid; b.) maltase digests maltose to glucose c.) lactase digests lactose to glucose and galactose; d.) sucrase digest sucrose to glucose and fructose
5. Circulatory and Lymphatic system – a.) blood – consists of plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes; b.) blood vessels – veins, venules, arteries, arterioles and blood capillaries; c.) heart-right atria and left ventricles, tricuspid and mitral valves, semilunar valves d.) lymph-“colorless blood” e.) lymphatic vessels – lymphatic capillaries and veins; f.) lymph ducts and lymph nodes
6. Respiratory system – a.) external respiration – exchange of gases between blood in the pulmonary capillaries and air in the alveoli; formation of oxygenated blood; b.) internal respiration – exchange of gases between the blood and the various tissue cells; formation of deoxygenated blood
7. Excretory system – a.) defecation – expulsion of feces; colon, rectum, anal canal and anus; b.) mictirition –urination; kidneys ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
8. Reproductive system – a.) spermatogenesis – development of mature spermatozoa from spermatogonia by mitosis, meiosis and differentiation; b.) oogenesis – development of mature ova from oogonia by mitosis and meiosis
9. Nervous system – nerves and neurons
a. Reflex arc – short circuit of nervous impulse from receptor cell to effector
b. Axon of one neuron synapses with the dendrites or cell body of other neurons
10. Endocrine system – endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete internally and convey hormones directly into the blood in the capillaries supplying the endocrine tissues
a. Pancreas
Glucagon – glucagons to glucose conversion
Insulin – glucose to glycogen conversion; diabetes mellitus and
b. Thyroid
Thyroxin- stimulates respiration / metabolism; hyper- and hypothyroidism, goiter, cretinism; myxedema
c. Parathyroid
Parathormone – controls Ca metabolism; hyperthyroidism (fractured bones)
d. Adrenal cortex
Cortisone – controls metabolism of water, minerals and carbohydrates ; controls kidney functions; Addison’s Disease (fatigue, loss of weight and change of skin)
e. Adrenal medulla
Adrenaline, noradrenaline –“fight or flight” reaction
f. Anterior pituitary
TSH (Thyrotrophic) stimulates thyroid
ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophic) stimulates adrenal cortex
FSH (Follicle-stimulating) – stimulates ovarian follicle and spermatogenesis
LH (Luteinizing) – stimulates corpus luteum in female and secretion of testosterone in male
Prolactin – stimulates milk secretion
Somatotrophic – regulates growth of skeleton; dwarfism and gigantism
g. Posterior pituitary
Oxytocin – stimulates smooth muscles and contractoion of uterus
ADH (Antidiuretic)/vasopressin – water reabsorption by kidneys; Diabetes insipidus (ADH deficiency)
h. Testes
Testosterone – maintains male sex characteristics
i. Ovaries
Progesterone (corpus luteum) – maintains growth of the uterus
Estrogen – (ovarian follicle) maintains females characteristics

VIII. Biological Diversity

1. Monerans – bacteria, blue-green algae; no cytoplasmic streaming, no distinct nucleus; lack endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, golgi bodies; abundant ribosomes
2. Protists – algae and protozoans; definite nucleus, with all the cytoplasmic organelles
3. Plants
· bryophytes – mosses, liverworts and hornworts; adapted only to moist habitat; lack vascular tissues;
· Tracheophytes – vascular plants; gymnosperms and angiosperms

4. Animals
· Poriferans – body perforated with flagella-lined openings; soft body parts supported with skeleton made of calcareous and siliceous needles; scyphavenus’s flower basket sponges
· Coelenterates – mesoglea in between two layers; nematocysts on tentacles; polymorphism; hydra, sea anemones, corals and jellyfish
· Platyhelminthes – flatworm with bilateral symmetry and a mesoderm, no body cavity; free living and parasitic; planaria, fluke, tapeworm
· Aschelminthes – tubular digestive tractwith botyh mouth and anus; roundworms hookworms, ascaris
· Ennelids – body divided into metameres or segments with duplication of body parts in each segment; true coilom; well-developed circulatory system; earthworm, leech
· Arthropods – jointed appendages , segmented bodies (head, thorax/caphalothorax and abdomen), chitinous exoskeleton; ventral nerve cord and dorsal heart; spider, scorpion, ticks, mites, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes and insects
· Molluscs – fleshy mantle that secretes the calcareous shell,ventral muscular foot, snails, slugs, bivalves, squid and octopus.
· Echinoderms – hard, calcareous spines that protrude through the skin, radial symmetry, water vascular system and tube feet; starfish, brittle star, sea urchin, sea cucumber
· Chordates – flexible, supporting notochord; dorsal tubular nerve cord; vertebrates: a.) cartilaginous fish – shark and ray; b.) bony fish; c.) amphibians – larvae are aquatic and lungs present in adult; frogs, toads, salamanders; d.) reptiles – body covered by scales or bony plates; snake, lizard, turtle; e.) aves – body with feathers and front appendages modified into wings; birds; f.) mammals – mammary glands; body with hair, viviparous reproduction; highly developed cerebrum; koala, elephant, bat, rat, cow, rabbit, man.
5. Fungi – network of hyphae called mycelium; “colorless protests” nonphotosynthetic; molds, mushroom
6. Virus – composed of inner nucleic acid core (DNA or RNA) and an outer protein coat; parasitic

IX. Genetics and Evolution

1. Chromosomes a.) autosomes – somatic chromosomes b.) sex chromosomes in man, there are 22 pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (22 and X chromosomes in egg, 22 and X or Y in sperm)
2. Sex chromosomes aberration – non-disjunction of the producing egg or sperm cell that may contain both XXX or XY and the other half none.
3. Point or gene mutation may involve change in a single or few nucleotide bases or may involve gross modifications of chromosomal structure or number as in chromosomal aberrations brought a brought by chemical pollution, ionizing radiation, drug abuse, radioactive waste, etc.
4. Mendelian Genetic a.) law of segregation – separation of the pair of genes (alleles) during gametogenesis, b.) law of independent assortment – the distribution of genes in the resulting gametes is at random.
5. Non-mendelian Genetics – a.) Incomplete dominance – phenotype of heterozygote is intermediate between phenotypes of the two homozygotest a cross between red and white flower produced pink flowers b.) Codominance – phenotype of the hybrid is a mixture of red and white haired cattle produced a roan hybrid with a mixture of red and white c.) multiple alleles – any 3 or more genes occupy the same iocus in a given pair of chromosomes e.g. 3 alleles of blood type – A,B and O d.) sex-linked genes or x-linked genes – genes exclusively in X chromosomes; e.g. hemophilia; c.) Lolandric or Y-linked genes-genes occurring in Y chromosomes produce effects only in males e.g. hypertrichosis (hair arising from ear); f.) sex-influence genes – genes in which the expression or dominance depends on the sex of the bearer. E,g. pattern baldness in males
6. If two individuals of opposite sex are able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring then they belong to the same species.
7. Speciation is the formation of new species and the development of species diversity occurs when gene flow within the common pool is interrupted by isolating mechanisms. When isolation occurs through geographic separation of populations descended from a common ancestor, allopathic speciation may result. When isolation occurs through ecological or genetic means within the same area, sympatric speciation is a possibility.


1. Scientific names are used by biologists to refer to organisms because
A. they give accurate descriptions of organisms
B. their Latin names are easier to remember
C. they are the same in all languages
D. they give honor to the person who discovered them.

2. Which of the following shows the correct hierarchy of classification in the living world?
A. Kingdom, phylum, order class, family, genus, species
B. kingdom, phylum, class, family, order, genus, species
C. kingdom, order, phylum, class, family, genus, species
D. kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

3. Clues scientists use to classify organisms include
A. common names C. structural similarities
B. identification keys D. scientific names

4. The following are capable of making their food except
A. orchid C. mushroom
B. moss D. Hydrilla

5. The following are examples of protests except
A. Euglena C. Anabaena
B. Amoeba D. Paramecium

6. Euglena move by means of
A. flagella C. contractile vacuoles
B. pseudopodia D. cilia

7. All of the following protests have locomotory organs except
A. flagellates C. ciliates
B. sporozoans D. sarcodines

8. The fungus kingdom includes
A. viruses C. liverworts
B. moses D. mushrooms

9. Which of the following are nonvascular plants?
A. ferns C. gymnosperms
B. angiosperms D. mosses

10. What structures are lacking in nonvascular plants?
A. true roots and stems C. phloem
B. xylem D. xylem and phloem

11. Monocots differ from dicots because
A. their leaves have netted or reticule veins
B. their xylem and phloem vessels are radially arranged
C. they reproduce by seeds hidden in protective structures
D. their floral parts are in multiples of three

12. Which of the following is a pore bearing animal?
A. bath sponge C. jellyfish
B. hydra D. liver fluke

13. Which of the following characteristics are present in all arthropods?
A. exoskeleton C. wings
B. jointed legs D. jointed legs and exoskeleton

14. Which is true about mammals?
A. they have scales
B. they have an amniotic egg
C. they nurse their young with milk
D. they cannot fly

15. Which grouping of animals is NOT correct?
A. chicken, maya, penguin, kingfisher
B. starfish, sand dollar, brittlestar, sea urchin
C. pawikan, lizard, snake, crocodile
D. dragonfly, spider, butterfly, cockroach

16. Which of the following are reptiles
A. crocodiles and salamanders
B. crocodiles, turtles, and lizards
C. turtles and toads
D. lizards and salamanders

For nos 17 – 25, choose the word that does not belong to the group

17. A. grasshopper C. spider
B. dragonfly D. sea grasses

18. A. Caulerpa C. cycads
B. tree ferns D. seagrasses

19. A. starfish C. jellyfish
B. sea cucumber D. milkfish

20. A. ostrich C. bat
B. eagle D. pigeon

21. A. snake C. salamander
B. monitor lizard D. pawikan

22. A. santan C. Bandera española
B. gumamela D. rosal

23. A. mosses C. diatoms
B. liverworts D. hornworts

24. A. shark C. catfish
B. milkfish D. tuna

25. A. frog C. newt
B. toad D. lizard

For nos 26 – 29, choose the letter of the best answer to complete the pair.

26. Penicillium : _______ ; Fern : Plant
A. animal C. ciliates
B. protest D. fungi

27. Fishes : scales ; _________ : hair
A. reptiles C. amphibians
B. mammals D. birds

28. grass : monocot ; __________ : dicot
A. orchid C. mango
B. gabi D. cocnut

29. Amoeba : eukaryote ; _________ : procaryote
A. blue green algae C. hornwort
B. Plasmodium D. Volvox

30. Energy enters the living world through
A. producers C. omnivores
B. herbivores D. carnivores

31. The light reaction phase of photosynthesis occurs in the
A. stroma C. cristae
B. grana D. chlorophyll

32. The dark reaction phase of photosynthesis occurs in the
A. stroma C. cristae
B. grana D. chlorophyll
33. The end products of photosynthesis are:
A. life energy and O2 C. glucose and O2
B. CO2 and life energy D. water and CO2

34. Which of the following shows the energy changes in photosynthesis?
A. chemical ® light ® chemical
B. chemical ® energy of moving electrons ® light
C. light ® chemical ® energy of moving electrons
D. light ® energy of moving electrons ® chemical

35. The stomata serve as channels for the passageway of
A. O­2 only C. Co2 entry ; O2 exit
B. CO2 only D. O2 entry ; CO2 exit

36. Which of the following are the primary products produced during electron transport in the light reaction phase of photosynthesis?
1. NADPH 2. ATP C. water
A. 1 and 2 only C. 1 and 3 only
B. 2 and 3 only D. 1,2, and 3 only

37. Photosynthesis supplies the biosphere with several essential materials. Which of the following is not among them?
A. oxygen gas from water
B. chemical energy from light energy
C. carbon dioxide from organic carbon and oxygen from air
D. glucose from inorganic matter

38. Mitochondria has two membranes, the outer and an inner membrane. The inner membrane of mitochondria folds to make a series of shelves called
A. cristae C. thyllakoid
B. grana D. stroma

39. Which of the following statements does not describe the Cell theory
A. cells are the units of structure and function
B. new cells come from the division of pre existing cells
C. most living things are made up of cells
D. cells are building blocks of life

40. A cell places in salt solution shrinks in size if the concentration of salt particles inside the cell is
A. greater than the concentration of sale particles outside the cell
B. the same as the concentration of salt particles outside the cell
C. less than the concentration of salt particles outside the cell
D. none of the above

41. Proteins have structural functions in an organism. What is the function of keratin?
A. promotes breakdown or digestion of fats
B. connects cell membrane and nuclear membrane
C. makes up the structure of hair, nails, and wool for protection
D. gives energy

42. What is the outermost part of a plant cell?
A. cell membrane C. vacuole
B. cell wall D. stoma

43. If the eyepiece of a compound microscope has a magnification of 10x and the objective is 40x, the microscopic field would have been enlarged by
A. 4x B. 40x C. 50x D. 400x

44. In a compound microscope, which of he following parts magnify the specimen being observed?
A. revolving nosepiece, low power objective (LPO), high power objective (HPO)
B. mirror, diaphragm, eyepiece
C. coarse adjustment, fine adjustment, objectives
D. LPO, HPO, and eyepiece

45. Which of the following suggests that the nucleus influences cell activities?
A. a cell whose nucleus has been removed takes in food
B. cell whose cytoplasm has been removed stops making proteins
C. an intact one-celled organism moves in water
D. a cell whose nucleus has been removed stops growing.

46. Which of the following is absent in a prokaryotic cell?
A. cell wall C. nuclear membrane
B> nucleus D. cell membrane

47. Which of the following is not true about Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A. It is single stranded
B. It has a 5-Carbon sugar ribose
C. Its bases are adenine, guanine, thymine and cystosine
D. It is needed for protein synthesis

48. Essential amino acids can be obtained from
A. plant sources C. both plant and animal sources
B. animal sources D. neither plant nor animal sources

49. Which of the following is a most unlikely function of protein in the body?
A. It repairs damaged cells and tissues
B. It serves as a structural component for hair and nails
C. It gives energy to the body
D. It helps in blood clotting

50. The external structures that distinguish a stem from a root are the
A. vascular tisssues C. lenticels
B. nodes D. epidermis

51. Which of the ff. is a stem specialized for reproduction?
A. Stolon C. corn
B. bulb D. tuber

52. The top of pechay plant that was made to stand in red ink became red after a few minutes. Through which part of the stem did the ink rise?
A. phloem C. epidermis
B. xylem D. pericycle

53. it is the part of the stem where leaves are attached
A. node C. internode
B. lenticel D. bundle scar

54. Which is not a function of the stem
A. support C. storage
B. absorption D. conduction

55. Which leaf layer allows exchange within the plant leaf?
A. palisade layer C. epidermal layer
B. spongy layer D. endodermal layer


1. A glucose molecule is to starch as
A. a steroid is to a lipid
B. a protein is to an amino acid
C. a nucleic acid is to a polypeptide
D. a nucleotide is to a nuclei acid
E. an amino acid it to a nucleic acid

2. What makes a fatty acid an acid?
A. IT does not dissolve in water
B. it is capable of bonding with other molecules to form fat
C. It has a carboxyl group that donates a hydrogen ion to a solution
D. it contains only 2 oxygen atoms
E. it is a polymer made of smaller subunits

3. Where in the three dimensional structure of a protein would you be most likely to find a hydrophobic amino acid R group?
A. at both ends of the polypeptide chain
B. on the outside, in the water
C. covalently bonded to another R group
D. on the inside, away from the water
E. covalently bonded to the amino group of the next amino acid

4. The enzyme called pancreatic amylase is a protein whose job is to attach to starch to starch molecules in food and help break them down to disaccharides. Amylase cannot break down cellulose. Why not?
A. cellulose is a kind of fat not a carbohydrate like starch
B. cellulose molecules are much too large
C. starch is made of glucose ; cellulose is made of other sugars
D. the bonds between sugars in cellulose are much stronger
E. the sugars in cellulose bond differently, giving cellulose a different shape

5. A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture
A. DNA D. fatty acids
B. proteins E. sucrose
C. cellulose

6. Lipids differ from other biological molecules in that they
A. are much larger D. do not contain carbon
B. are not true polymers E. containing nitrogen atoms
C. do not have specific shapes

7. Which functional group (s) act (s) as an acid?
A. carbonyl D. carboxyl
B. amino E. all of the above
C. hydroxyl

8. Sara would like to film the movement of chromosomes when a cell divides. Which of the following would work best for this purpose and why?
A. A light microscope, because of its greater resolving power
B. a transmission electron microscope because of its greater magnification
C. a scanning electron microscope because the specimen is alive
D. a transmission electron microscope, because of its greater resolving power
E. a light microscope, because the specimen is alive

9. The cells of an ant and a horse are, on average, the same small size; a horse just has more of them. Why are cells so small?
A. If cells were any larger, they would burst
B. Small cells are easy to replace if damaged or diseased
C. Small cells are able to absorb what they need
D. it takes little energy and materials to make small cells
E. small cells can change the shape easily
10. Which of the following clues would tell you whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
A. The presence or absence of a rigid cell wall
B. whether or not the cell is partitioned by internal membranes
C. the presence and absence of ribosomes
D. whether or not the cell carries out cellular metabolism
E. whether or not the cell contains DNA

11. Which of the following is not directly involved in cell support or movement?
A. microfilament C. microtubule E. cell wall
B. flagellum D. lysosome

12. A type of cell called a lymphocyte makes proteins that are exported from the cell. It is possible to track the path of these proteins as they leave the cell by labeling with radioactive isotopes. Which of the following might be the path of proteins from where they are made to the lymphocyte’s plasma membrane?
A. chloroplast … Golgi … plasma membrane
B. Golgi … rough ER … plasma membrane
C. rough ER … Golgi … plasma membrane
D. smooth ER … lysosome … plasma membrane
E. nucleus … Golgi … rough ER … plasma membrane

13. Which of the following processes produces the most ATP molecules per molecule consumed?
A. lactic acid fermentation
B. Krebs cycle
C. electron transport and chemiosmosis
D. alcoholic fermentation
E. glycolysis

14. When a poison such as cyanide blocks the electron transport chain, glycolysis and the Kreb’s cycle soon grid halt as well. Why do you think they stop?

1. Substances that help break large food particles into smaller ones are
A. enzymes C. nutrients
B. amino acids D. fatty acids

2. In human beings, most of the digestion occurs in the
A. esophagus C. small intestine
B. liver D. mouth

3. The wavelike contractions of the alimentary canal is
A. salivation C. peristalsis
B. periodontitis D. none of these

4. Salivary secretion occurs when
A. food is ingested in the mouth
B. a person sees or smell foods
C. churning
D. a person swallows

5. Maltose is converted to glucose in the
A. esophagus C. stomach
B. mouth D. small intestine

6.The following are substances directly absorbed bu the bloodstream in the small intestine except
A. alcohol C. starch
B. water D. medicine

7. After digestion, blood sugar level
A. increases C. remains the same
B. decreases D> none of these

8. What causes human beings to be hungry?
A. contractions of the large intestine
B. contractions of the stomach
C. secretion of acid into the bloodstream
D. secretion of bile from the gallbladder

9. Digestive glands are classified as exocrine glands because they release their secretions into the
A. liver C. ducts
B. blood D. duodenum

10. What is the effect if a person’s liver stop functioning?
A. Fats will not be broken down into smaller droplets
B. Protein cannot be changed into amino acids
C. Starch cannot be changed into sugar
D. Vitamins and minerals will not be absorbed in the small intestine

11. Absorption of salt and water is the principal function of which region
A. stomach C. anus
B. duodenum D. large intestine

12. Starch that escapes digestion in the mouth can be digested in the
A. esophagus C. small intestine
B. stomach D. large intestine

13. The stomach lining is not “eaten up: by HCl because of the following reasons except
A. mucus us secreted by the stomach lining
B. presence of food dilutes the otherwise very harmful effects of HCl
C. stomach lining is quickly replaced
D. stomach wall is made up of strong muscular wall

14. Vomitting occurs when
A. food additives irritate the lining of the stomach
B. the valve to the esophagus opens
C. food ingested is greater than what the stomach can hold
D. all of the above

15. In humans, digestion of food is completed in the
A. mouth C. stomach
B. small intestine D. large intestine

16. Which of these organs lie in the left upper area of the abdomen?
A. spleen C. cecum
B. liver D. ascending colon

17. All of these structures touch the dome of the diaphragm except the
A. liver C. esophagus
B. stomach D. gallbladder

18. During swallowing, the soft palate and uvula are elevated to close off the
A. laryngopharynx C. parapharynx
B. oropharynx D. gallbaladder

19. During swallowing, the _____ is pushed backward by the tongue to cap the glottis so ffod does not go down the larynx
A. thyroid C. epiglotis
B. arytenoids D. cricoid

20. Which of the following is not a structural component of the large intestine?
A. taeniae coli C. haustra
B. ileum D. epiploic appendages

21. Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum could occur in which part of the body?
A. salivary glands C. nasal cavity
B. esophagus D. tongue

22. As the food in the stomach is repeatedly squeezed and mixed with gastric juice, it is converted into a semi-fluid paste called
A. bolus C. bile
B. chime D. feces

23. Which is not a function of saliva
A. initiates protein digestion
B. acts as solvent in cleansing teeth
C. lubricates the pharynx
D. assists in formation of bolus

24. The middle portion of the small intestine is the
A. duodenum C. jejunum
B. ileum D. pyloric sphincter

25. The sphincter between the stomach and duodenum is the ______ sphincter
A. pyloric C. hepatopancreatic
B. cardiac D. ileocecal

26. Which later of the gastrointestinal tract is responsible for peristalsis?
A. serosa C. muscularis
B. mucosa D. submucosa

27. ______ is an accessory organ that secretes a substance that is enzymatic and antibacterial in nature?
A. liver C. tongue
B. salivary gland D. gallbladder

28. All arteries in the body contain oxygen rich blood with the exception of
A. the aorta C. the renal artery
B. pulmonary arteries D. coronary arteries

29. Is the blood and example of a cell or a tissue? Why?
A. cell, because the blood consists of only one type of cell
B. cell, because the blood is a component of the transport system
C. tissue, because it is made up of several kinds of cells
D. tissue, because the blood cells are dispersed in a liquid medium

30. How does lymph differ from blood?
A. lymph always flows in tubes
B. Lymph moves directly through spaces between some cells of the body
C. lymph carries food and oxygen to some parts of the body
D. Lymph removes waste materials and carbon dioxide from some parts of the body

31. The process by which the composition of the blood is kept constant is an example of
A. assimilation C. dialysis
B. circulation D. homeostasis

32. Suffocation turn the victim’s skin blue. The reason for this is
A. blood lost oxygen in favor of nitrogen
B. blood lost carbon dioxide
C. blood lost oxygen in favor of carbon dioxide
D. blood lost hemoglobin

33. Read the following sentences carefully and determine the logical order that takes place in the heart.
A. blood passes through the tricuspid valve
B. blood releases the carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen in the lungs
C. blood then pours into the right atrium
D. then the blood enters the left ventricle and unto the aorta for the delivery of blood to cells
E. It goes back to the heart through the pulmonary veins
F. It enters the right ventricle
G. Deoxygenated blood enters the inferior and superior vena cava
H. Blood is now oxygenated
I. the blood is poured into the left atrium
J. Blood rushes to the pulmonary artery

The correct sequence of the events is
A. a,I,d,c,f,j,e,b,g,h
B. g,I,a,f,j,b,e,h,c,d
C. g,c,a,f,j,b,h,e,I,d
D. a,f,g,b,h,d,I,c,e,j

34. The semilunar valves lie between the
A. atria and ventricles C. two ventricles
B. atria and vena cava D. ventricles and great arteries
35. The nutrient (oxygenated) blood supply to the lungs is provided by the
A. pulmonary arteries C. pulmonary veins
B. aorta D. bronchial areteries

36. Blood is carried to the capillaries in the myocardium through the
A. coronary sinus C. coronary arteries
B. fossa ovalis D. coronary veins

37. Oxygen poor blood returns to the heart and enters the
A. right atrium C. left ventricle
B. left atrium D. right ventricle

38. During ventricular systole, blood exits the heart to enter the
A. aorta C. pulmonary veins
B. pulmonary trunk D. both a and b

39. Functionally, why are there no valves in arteries?
A. valves only direct blood toward the heart and arterial blood passes away from the heart
B. valves would tear apart from high arterial pressure
C. since arteries get more asterioscleroses, valves would cause lethal blood clotting
D. the blood pressure in arteries is high enough that there is no backflow of blood

40. The biconcave cells in blood that lack nuclei when they mature are the
A. leukocytes C. platelets
B. erythrocytes D. thrombocytes

41. When the ventricles contract, the
A. bicuspid valve opens and the tricuspid valve does
B. tricuspid valve opens and the bicuspid valve closes
C. bicuspid and tricuspid valves open
D. bicuspid and tricuspid valves close

42. When the pulse is taken on the thumb side of the wrist area, the artery that is felt is the
A. brachial C. radial
B. median cubital D. ulnar

43. Antibodies are
A. proteins produced by B cells
B. proteins produced by T cells
C. proteins on the surface of a disease agents
D. drugs used to kill bacteria

44. Which of the following cells kill disease agents by poking a hole through the membrane of the agents
A. B lymphocytes C. macrophages
B. cytoxic T lymphocytes D. mast cells

45. It is the organ that is a part of both the endocrine and the lymphatic systems
A. spleen C. tonsils
B. pancreas D. thymus

46. The heart chambers carry deoxygenated blood are
A. right and left atria
B> the right and left ventricles
C. the right atrium and right ventricle
D. the left atrium and the left ventricle

47. The vessel that returns blood from the kidney to the inferior vena cava is the
A. celiac vein C. hepatic portal vein
B. hepatic vein D. renal vein

49. These are round, disc shaped cells devoid of nuclei that carry oxygen
A. white blood corpuscles C. red blood corpuscles
B. blood platelets D. antibodies

50. Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported with hemoglobin
A. as dissolved gas C. as carbonic acid
B. as bicarbonate ion D. as calcium carbonate

51. The ____ have blood with the lowest pressure
A. arteries C. capillaries
B. arterioles D. venules

52. The interstitial fluid that accumulates outside the capillaries is returned to the heart by a separate system of vessels called the ____ system
A. circulatory C. digestive
B> lymphatic D. endocrine
53. Hemoglobin is used as oxygen carrier in which of the following animal groups?
A. insects C. vertebrates
B. annelids D. both b and c

54. The diameter of a capillary is about the same as that of a/an
A. arteriole C. red blood cell
B. nerve D. valve

55. In the human heart, blood is pumped from the left ventricle into the
A. left atrium C. pulmonary circulation
B. right atrium D. systematic circulation

For nos 57 – 60, choose from the ff options:
A. X is true and Y is false C. X and Y are both true
B. X is false and Y is true D. X and Y are both false

57. X. oxygen is taken up in the body during inhalation
Y. Oxygen is delivered to the tissue by respiration

58. X. Lungs are organs of respiration
Y. They are situated in the abdominal cavity

59. X. Kidney stores urine
Y. It is an organ where blood is oxygenated

60. X. Alveoli are tiny sacs at the end of the bronchioles
Y. They have thin and moist walls to permit faster diffusion of gases.

61. A long term smoking habit can destroy the cilia along the lining of the air passage. How might this effect a smoker’s health?
A. He/she cannot breathe
B. He/she cannot filter the air pollutants
C. Air cannot pass through
D. The egg cannot move through the fallopian tube

62. Many fishes lack urinary bladder but urinary bladder are found in amphibians and all higher vertebrates. What is the advantage of having a urinary bladder?
A. it filters urine C. it stores urine
B. it houses an embryo D. none of the above

63. Normal urine contains some
A. some glucose C. some protein
B. some cells D. some salts

64. During extreme dehydration, the human body secretes ADH (anti diuretic hormone) in order to
A. increase appetite C. inhale air
B. reabsorb more water D. excrete more urine

65. When an individual lacks the ability to produce insulin, there is likely to be
A. salt in the blood C. sugar in the bone
B. glycogen in the liver D. sugar in the urine

66. Which of the following occurs when the bladder is filled with urine?
A. smooth muscles relax C. smooth muscles contract
B. it secretes hormones D. Urethra elongates

67. Which is the filtering unit of the kidney?
A. bladder C. nephron
B/ capillaries D. urethra

68. The lower side of the lung cavity is formed by the
A. diaphragm C. stomach
B. esophagus D. ribs

69. Which of these regions of the nephron is closest to the glomerulus?
A. collecting duct C. distral convoluted tubule
B. proximal convoluted tubule D. nephron loop

70. Urine passed through the
A. kidney hilus to the bladder to the ureter
B. renal pelvis to ureter to bladder to urethra
C. glomerulus to ureter to nephron
D. hilus to urethra to bladder

71. Which is not a component of the urinary system?
A. urethra C. adrenal gland
B. urinary bladder D. kidney

72. Which of the following statements is flase concerning the human kidneys?
A. they are retroperitoneal
B. they each contain renal pyramids
C. They have a distinct cortex and medulla region
D. they are positioned between the third and the fifth lumbar vertebrae

73. Which is not a structure of the respiratory system?
A. bronchus C. trachea
B. nasal cavity D. esophagus

74. The loudness of a vocal sound is determined by
A. tense vocal cords C. the length of the vocal cords
B. relaxed vocal cords D. force that sir passes

75. The term respiration refers to
A. ventilation
B. gas exchange within the lungs
C. oxygen utilization within the cells
D. all of the above

76. The hormone present in the urine of a pregnant woman is

77. The mineral deposits precipitatd out of urine that has become too concentrated are
A. salts C. stones
B. mineralized sugar D. none of the above

78. The saclike cavity where the points of the pyramid extend to where urine is secreted is
A. cortex C. glomerulus
B. medulla D. pelvis

79. A passageway for both air and food is the
A. trachea C. larynx
B. pharynx D. bronchi

80. The entrance and exit of air in the human body is accomplished by mechanical process called
A. breathing C. excretion
B. ventilation D. eliminations

81. Which of the following structures us the site of gas exchange in the lungs?
A. alveoli C. bronchioles
B. bronchi D. trachea

82. The gas needed to turn to usable energy is
A. nitrogen C. carbon dioxide
B. oxygen D. hydrogen

83. Which of the following factors does not affect the breathing rate?
A. sex C. age
B. activity D. food

84. It is an instrument for viewing existing stones in the kidney
A. stethoscope C. scalpel
B. cytoscope D. periscope

85. The covering of the lungs that secretes mucus
A. peritoneal membranes C. myocardial membrane
B. Pleural membranes D. semipermeable membrane

86. The following factors effect the faster rate of urination except
A. pregnancy C. excitement
B. intake of iquid D. depressants

87. After an accident, a person could not move his right arm but could feel sensations of pain and pressure in the area. Which of the following has most likely been injured?
A. cerebrum C. sensory nerve
B. motor nerve D. spinal cord

88. what is the function of the sense organs?
A. to receive the stimulus C. transmit messages to the CNS
B. react to stimulus D. all of the above

89. Impulses leave a neuron via
A. dendrite C. neurolemma
B. axons D. call body

For numbers 90 – 93, match the type of receptor on the right with the sense organ.

90. skin of snakes A. thermoreceptor
91. retina B. mechanoreceptor
92. nose C. chemoreceptor
93. hair cells D. photoreceptor

94. An advantage of having the endocrine system as well as the nervous system involved in the flight or flight response is that
A. the endocrine responds faster
B. the endocrine response usually lasts longer
C. the endocrine systems affects only the largest organs whose response is needed to meet the emergency
D. the response of the endocrine system frees the nervous system to think of the way out of the situation instead of simply maintaining the body in the alert state

95. All of the following conditions serve as signals that stimulates hormone secretion except
A. conditions outside the body
b. rising level of another hormone
C. rising level of the hormones in question
D. falling levels of another hormone

97. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is released from the anterior pituitary in response to low levels of thyroxine in the blood. Higher levels of thyroxin reduce the release of TSH. This regulation of levels of TSH and thyroxin is
A. hormone secretions C. iodine deficiency
B. feedback mechanism D. metabolism

98. glycogen is converted back to glucose during an emergency by the hormone
A. pancreatin C. estrogen
B. insulin D. glucagons

99. The hormones responsible for the flight-and-flight reaction are
A. glucagons and insulin C. adrenalin and nonadrenalin
B. thyroxin and cakcitonin D. estrogen and progesterone

100. The myelin sheath around the axons of vertebrate neurins
A. is rich in lipids because it is formed by many layers of membranes
B. is produced inside the axon and extruded out of the membrane
C. is continuous along the length of the axon
D. is a secretory product of glial cells

101. The parasympathetic nervous system
A. is part of the central nervous system, located in the spinal cord
B. predominates over the sympathetic system in times of stress
C. tends to lower blood pressure and to slow the heartbeat rate of breathing
D. is composed of sensory neutrons running parallel to the motor neutrons

102. The correct pathway of a nerve impulse is
A. synapse, cell body, dendrites, axons
B. axon, cell body, synapse, dentrite
C. dentrite, cell body, synapse, dentrite
D. dentrite, cell body, axon, synapse

103. What is the possible consequence to damage of the descending tracts within the spinal cord?
A. lack of skin sensation C. inability to taste or smell
B. heart beat stops D. paralysis to limbs

104. An example of a chemical released by the presynaptic membrane of a neuron is a/an
A. antibody C. enzyme
B. neurotransmitter D. cytokinin

105. The well known anti depressant functions in the brain to increase levels of serotonin transmitter by
A. inhibiting the enzyme breakdown of serotonin transmitter
B. decreasing the synthesis of serotonin transmitter
C. increasing the synthesis of serotonin transmitter
D. inhibiting the binding serotonin with postsynaptic receptor

106. The nerve impulse is a
A. release of transmitter at presynaptic membrane
B. movement of calcium ions along the neuron
C. wave of depolarization along the neuron
D. change in the local environment of sensory receptor

107. Cerebral stroke can be life threatening because
A. activity of the pituitary gland is put in jeopardy
B. stress hormones are allowed to increase heartbeat
C. nutrients cannot get vital areas of the brain
D. it may cause inability to maintain body temperature

108. It is a component of the CNS which contains sensory motor reflex center to know where our body parts are and to react quickly to changes in body temperature
A. brain stem C. cerebellum
B. hypothalamus D. inner ear

109. When you stand after having sat on a chair for a while, what change in the internal environment sets off a sensory/motor reflex to increase heartbeat?
A. rise in oxygen levels in blood vessels
B. decrease in pressure in neck blood vessels
C. decease in carbon dioxide levels in blood vessels
D. increase in pressure in neck blood vessels

110. Which of the following has the highest degree of structural organization?
A. brain stem C. neurons
B. axons and dendrites D. neurotransmitters

111. Heat conserving measures under control of the neuroendocrine system which are at work to maintain your body temperature during winter months include
A. decrease in heartbeat and breathing
B. reduction in sugar and fatty acid metabolism
C. constriction in sugar and fatty acid metabolism
D. dilation of blood vessels increase skin blood flow

112. ____ is used to determine metabolically active regions where glucose is taken up and broken down for energy
A. X-ray tomography
B. Magnetic resonance imaging
C. CT scan
D. positron emission transmission

113. Which is a stimulatory activity of automatic nerves in a situation of “flight or flight” where an individual confrons and reacts to a dangerous situation?
A. increase of G/I movement and digestion
B. dilation of blood vessels to reduce pressure
C. motor targeting of the heart
D. reduction in breathing rate

114. The endocrine response in a flight or flight situation where muscles need extra energy is the result of the
A. release of pituitary hormones
B. automatic nerves activating adrenals resulting in elevated blood sugar
C. release of thyroid hormone
D. hypothalamus being stimulated by sensory stimuli

115. The final step in the development of sperm cell is called
A. seprmiogenesis C. oogenesis
B. spermatogenensis D. spermatogonia

116. Sperm cells complete their maturation process and become fertile as they move through the
A. epidydymis C. ejaculatory duct
B. ductus deferens D. urethra

117. Although one sperm cell actually penetrates and fertilizes the ovum, ____ of sperm cells are released in an ejaculation to ensure that fertilization will take place
A. dozens C. thousands
B. hundreds D. millions

118. Which of the following could be found in the ovary?
A. oviduct C. endometrium
B. corpus luteum D. cervix

119. For fertilization to occur, sperm cells are deposited in the female’s ___. These sperm cells then enter the _____ through the opening called ____, and travel to the ___, the site of zygote formation
A. vagina, cervix, oviduct, uterus
B. cervix, vagina, uterus, oviduct
C. uterus, vagina, cervix, oviduct
D. vagina, uterus, cervix, oviduct

120. Sperm cells are stored in the _____. They ascend into the _____ prior to ejaculation, and are discharged from the penis through teh
A. seminiferous tubules, prostate gland, vas deferens
B. epidydymis, vas deferens, urethra
C. epidydymis, epidydymis, urethra
D. epidydymis, prostate gland, urethra

121. Which of the following is found in the male penis?
A. corpus carnevosa C. corpus spongiosum
B. urethra D. seminiferous tubule

122. The fertilization of human eggs most commonly occurs in what part of the female reproductive system?
A. uterus C. vagina
B. fallopian tube D. ovary

123. The hormone releases by the area of the brain known as the hypothalamus beginning at the onset of the sexual maturiety in both males and females is the
A. follicle stimulating hormone
B. lutenizing hormone
C. gonadotropin releasing hormone
D. testosterone

124. What pituitary hormone control the ovulation and production of female hormones by the ovary
A. estrogen C. human chorionic gonadotropin
B. gonadotropin releasing hormone D. FSH and LH

125. In a typical 28 day fermal reproductive cycle on which day following the beginning of the menstrual cycle is the level of LH most likely to be highest?
A. 7 B. 14 C. 21 D. 28

126. What hormone inhibits development of ovarian follicles is a common component of oral contraceptives?
A. follicle stimulating hormone
B. lutenizing hormone
C. procalatin
D. progesterone

127. The tube through which the sperm cells pass from the epidydymis to the penis is known as the
A. semineferous tubules C. corpus cavernosa
B. urethra D. vas deferens

128. Bothe sperm and egg cells are
A. gamates C. chromosomes
B. gonads D. zygote

129. In the process called ovulation,
A. a sperm cell fertilizes an egg
B. a zygote become an embryo
C. an ovum is released from the ovary
D. a follicle releases the hormone FSH

130. Specifically, sperm cells are made in the
A. follicles C. vas deferens
B. seminiferous tubules D. prostate gland

131. The hormone with the most important role in the development of male secondary characteristics is the
A. progesterone C. testosterone
B. estrogen D. LH

132. Egg cells are produced in the
A. oviduct C. vagina
B. uterus D. ovary

133. The hormone most responsible for triggering ovulation is
A. LH C. adrenalin
B. growth hormone D. estrogen

134. Select the correct stages in development
A. zygote –fetus-embryo C. zygote-embryo-fetus
B. fetus-embryo-zygote D. embryo-fetus-zygote

135. The human sperm cell and egg cell each carry ____ chromosemes
A. 13 B. 23 C. 33 D. 46


General Education Component

Directions: Choose the letter corresponding to the best answer.
The following occur during the light reaction of photosynthesis EXCEPT:
splitting of water molecules
excitation of chlorophyll molecules
oxygen formation
reduction of carbon to simple sugar
This pushes the bolus from the pharynx to move down the esophagus :
A. Peristalsis C. Muscle contraction
B. Deglutition D. Churning
It aids in the daily elimination of feces:
A. fish and meat C. green leafy vegetable
B. milk D. rice
When the right and left halves of an organism are exact mirror images of each other, the term is:
A. asymmetrical C. bilateral symmetry
B. unilateral symmetry D. genetic symmetry
The roots exhibit geotropism due to :
many root hairs
A. starch grains in the root cap
rapid cell division in the apical meristem
cell enlargement in the zone of elongation
Monocots possess the following characteristics EXCEPT:
large seed endospern
fibrous root system
primary growth of tissues
netted leaf venation
7. Turbidity in water would lower primary productivity in the aquatic ecosystem due to:
a. decrease photosynthetic rate c. dispersion of dissolved nutrients
b. increase in water level d. decrease oxygen level
8. Two normal parents had an offspring who grew up to be a midget. A possible cause is the malfunctioning of:
a. ovary c. pituitary gland
b. thryroid gland d. adrenal gland
9. If blood from fresh wound takes a long time to clot, there is a deficiency in:
a. prothrombin c. erythrocytes
b. thrombin d. leucocytes
10. A couple had heterozygous genes for tallness. The genotypic ratio of their offsprings is:
a. 2 homozygous tall, 2 heterozygous short
b. 1 homozygous tall, 2 heterozygous tall, 1 homozygous short
c. 4 heterozygous tall
d. 4 heterozygous short
11. Ana is allergic to pollens. This illustrates:
a. individual differences
b. complexity of pollen grains
c. protein specificity
d. macromolecule incompatibility
12. After a strenuous exercise, one experiences muscular pain due to:
a. lack of blood supply
b. lactic acid formation
c. hydrolysis of glycogen
d. muscular contraction
13. Adding too much fertilizer to the soil is harmful to plants because of:
a. cytolysis of root cells
b. plasmolysis of root cells
c. increase water uptake
d. accumulation of toxins
14. The process of producing alcohol from grapes with the aid of microorganisms:
a. food processing c. distillation
b. fermentation d. alcoholism
15. Deoxyribose nucleic acid is the genetic material making up the chromosomes. The following refers to DNA except:
a. phosphate group c. replicating
b. uracil d. mutations
16. The following are characteristics of bacteria and blue-green algae except:
a. single chromosome
b. respiratory machinery in plasma membrane
c. absence of murein in cell wall
d. absence of endoplasmic reticulum
17. The process of engulfing big food particles by ameoba is:
a. ameoboid movement c. pinocytosis
b. phagocytosis d. ingestion
18. This organelle brings about self-destruction of old and malfunctioning cells:
a. mitochondria c. lysosomes
b. kinetosomes d. golgi bodies
19. A carotenoid pigment responsible for the red color of ripe tomatoes is:
a. phycoerythrin c. lycopene
b. phycocyanin d. fucoxanthin
20. The following are characteristics of mitosis EXCEPT:
a. somatic cell division c. diploid number of chromosomes
b. DNA replication d. tetrad formation
21. The following are significance of meiosis EXCEPT:
a. genetic variation
b. reproduction in bacteria
c. formation of haploid number of chromosomes of gametes
d. restoration of diploid number of chromosomes in zygote
22. Glycine is coded as GGU, GGC, GGA. What characteristic of genetic code is illustrated here?
a. universal c degenerate
b. triplet d. non-ambigous
23. This animal tissue is characterized by semi-solid matrix with cells found in lacunae occuring in ends of ribs and ears:
a. muscles c. cartilage
b. bone d. adipose tissue
24. The development of annual rings in roots and stems of woody plants is brought about by :
a. xylem c. sclereids
b. phloem d. vascular cambium
25. The bark is removed in girdling. This results to the death of the woody plant due to :
a. removal of phloem
b. removal of xylem
c. accumulation of food in the upper portion of the girdle
d. loss of water from the stem
26. This type of root system is utilized in preventing soil erosion.
a. taproot c. adventitious
b. fibrous d. prop
27. The fight and flight reaction of man is brought about by the action of this hormone:
a. cortison c. adrenalin
b. glucagon d. thyroxin
28. Red algae are adapted to live in deeper water due to its:
a. carrageenan in cell wall c. phycocyanin
b. phycoerythrin d. holdfast
29. Fungi are saprophytic due to:
a. mycelia c. absence of chlorophyll
b. sporangia d. absence of true roots
30. Earthworms must have constantly moist skin for:
a. burrowing c. respiration
b. body movement d. reproduction
31. The advantage of molting in arthropods is:
a. regeneration c. reproduction
b. growth d. formation of exoskeleton
32. The shark is able to maintain balance while swimming due to its:
a. lateral line c. fins
b. ears d. swim bladder
33. This structure is highly developed in birds for control of equilibrium and muscle coordination for flight.
a. sternum c. cerebellum
b. cerebrum d. feathers
34. Bald males are either BB or Bb individuals while Bb female individuals are not bald. Thus, baldness is an example of:
a. holandric genes c. X-linked genes
b. sex-influenced trait d. complete dominance
35. It is a disease characterized by weak deformed bones due to the absence or lack of Vitamin D.
Rickets c. Pellagra
b. Scurvy d. Xeropthalmia
The new DNA which results from genetic engineering is called:
a. recombinant DNA c. nucleotide
b. DNA hybridization d. complementary DNA
Who of the parents contributes the sex chromosomes that determines the sex of the offspring?
a. female parent c. male parent
b. both parents d. neither of the two
The blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the different parts of the body:
a. superior vena cava c. pulmonary arteries
b aorta d. capillaries
Describe the skeletal muscles:
a. striated; involuntary c. smooth; voluntary
b. nonstriated; voluntary d. striated; voluntary
The enzyme present in the saliva that digests starch:
a. pepsin c. insulin
b. ptyalin d. maltase
This stage of mitosis is characterized by the division of the centromere resulting to the formation of single stranded chromosomes moving to opposite poles:
a. anaphase c. prophase
b. metaphase d. telophase
The liver secretes bile for:
a. storage of sugar c. emulsify fats
b. digests sugar d. digests protein
Ginger and potato are examples of modified:
a. roots c. leaves
b. runners d. stems
A compound that gives the blood its red color and responsible for the transport of oxygen.
a. calcium c. phosphate
b. hemoglobin d. magnesium sulfate
A hormone that promotes growth of mustache, beard, and muscles development among males.
a. testosterone c. estrogen
b. ACTH d. progesterone
It is a membrane that closes the air tube whenever we swallow to prevent choking.
a. sphincter c. epiglottis
b. valve d. epithelium
These serve as openings for gas exchange between the stem and the atmosphere:
a. lenticels c. stomata
b. epidermis d. cuticle
The following organelles are found only in plant cells EXCEPT:
a. chloroplasts c. centrioles
b. central vacuole d. leucoplasts

49. What type of flowers are the corn tassels?
a. perfect flowers c. carpellate flowers
b. staminate flowers d. complete flowers
What structure of a flower are the corn silks of the corn ear?
a. ovaries c. sepals
b. petals d. stigmas
Stomata of most plants are generally open …
when there is elevated concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
when there is drought
during the day to permit entry of carbon dioxide
during the night to minimize water loss
Ferns, club mosses, horsetails and hornworts are known as
a. bryophytes c. angiosperms
b. algae d. kelps
The process responsible for the ascent of water from the roots to the shoots
a. translocation c. osmosis
b. transpiration d. active transport
Jose has been fasting for 48 hrs. How does his body maintain its physiological activities in spite of this?
hydrolysis of stored proteins to amino acids
hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose
hydrolysis of water to oxygen
slower rate of metabolic activities
Males have 5-6 M erythrocytes per mm3 of blood compared to females with 4-5 M erythrocytes per mm3 of blood. This may be due to:
males have bigger body built than females
males need more energy for metabolic activities
females are capable of pregnancy
females have their monthly menstruation
Which of the following is mismatched?
plumule--- leaves b. epicotyl --- stem
c. coleoptile --- root d. hypocotyl --- root/shoot junction
57. This process which involves cell division, growth and differentiation replaces the lost body parts of an animal.
a. regeneration b. development
c. homeostasis d. adaptation
In snapdragons, tallness (T) is dominant over dwarfness (t). Flowers could be red (R) or white (W) or pink. A dwarf red snapdragon is crossed with a plant homozygous for tallness and white flowers. What are the phenotypes and genotypes of the F1 individuals?
a. TtRr --- tall and red b. ttRW --- dwarf and pink
c. TtRW --- tall and pink d. TtWW --- tall and white
The gene for gray body (B) is dominant over black body (b) in fruitflies. Two gray flies were mated and 158 gray flies and 49 black flies were subsequently produced. What are the probable genotypes of the parents?
a. BB x BB b. Bb x Bb
c. BB x Bb d. Bb x bb
Which parent determines the sex of the child?
a. mother b. father
c. grandparents d. both parents
A normal body cell of a dogfish shark contains 24 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are there in each of its gametes?
a. 24 b. 48
c. 6 d. 12
The sequence of the amino acids in the protein molecule is determined by the:
sequence of nitrogenous bases of DNA
nucleotide sequence of RNA
deoxyribose sugars of DNA
anticodon sequence of transfer RNA

In which society are castes demonstrated:
a. salmon b. birds
c. honeybees d. turtles
Which among the following exhibits double fertilization?
a. mammals b. reptiles
c. angiosperms d. fungi
The oxygenation of the blood in our body is formed by the:
diffusion of carbon dioxide from the different body cells to the blood in the blood capillaries
diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli to the blood in pulmonary capillaries
diffusion of oxygen from the heart to the blood in blood capillaries
hydrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen
These structures are responsible for the formation of urine in the kidneys:
a. glomeruli b. nephrons
c. renal pelvis d. ureters
Siamese twins develop from:
single ovum fertilized by a sperm cell fails to separate completely after mitosis
single ovum fertilized by two sperm cells fails to separate completely after mitosis
single ovum fertilized by a sperm cells divides completely after mitosis
two ova fertilized by two sperm cells
The positions of the diaphragm and rib cage during expiration:
flattened diaphragm and elevated rib cage
flattened diaphragm and lowered rib cage
dome-shaped diaphragm and elevated rib cage
dome-shaped diaphragm and lowered rib cage
Which do not belong to the group?
a. sternum b. humerus
c. phalanges d. radius and ulna
Raul’s blood agglutinated after blood transfusion from blood types A and B. This shows that he belongs to blood type:
a. A b. B
c. AB d. O

Thursday, September 6, 2007


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Your teen celeb style is Chic

You're a smart cookie and probably always seem a little more mature than the masses. That's why we're picking Reese Witherspoon as your star match. Reese may have played the part of an airhead, but she manages her own career, production company, and red-hot romance — and makes it all look easy. You, too, have a confident air about you that others are likely to find inspiring.Your sophisticated soul may make you gravitate toward classic clothes: lots of basic blacks and sleek, neat hairstyles. You probably also pride yourself on knowing what to say and how to act in nearly every situation. Hey, are those just-in-case thank you notes sticking out of your Kate Spade bag? Overall, we can tell one thing: You've got some style smarts that people notice. So keep it up with your chic style! Hollywood can always use another classic face.

What's Your Teen Celebrity Style?

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